Historical Maps



(Really Wide) Map of Peninsula from 1851
Showing the Pacific & Atlantic Railraod Line and Early Peninsula Cities
San Francisco & Vicinity for the Earthquake Commission Of 1908

This historical cartographic image is part of the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection, a large collection of online antique, rare, old, and historical maps, atlases, globes, charts, and other cartographic items. Copyright © 2000 by Cartography Associates. Images may be reproduced or transmitted, but not for commercial use.
California Circa 1846
Mexico Circa 1840
(by H.S. Tanner- (Very Large)
More maps at: http://www.reisenett.no/map_collection/map_sites/hist_sites.html
Brief Timeline of Early Mexican & Californian History



Early Peninsula





Early California


Mexico 1850


Hernan Cortez and his Spanish conquistadors overthrew the Aztec Empire and killed its last Emperor, Cuaht╚moc.
Viceroys ruled "New Spain"which claimed its northeast boundary near what today is Charleston, SC and its northwestern outposts at San Francisco. CA and Taos, NM.
Expansion northward: Soto in present southeast United States; Coronado in southwest; Cabrillo in California.
"Spanish Galleon" began run between Acapulco and Manila.
New Spain lost Florida to Great Britain but gained Louisiana from France.
Expulsion of Jesuits.
Governor Bernardo de Galvez from New Orleans fought British and regained the Floridas during the American War of Independence.
French Revolution: its doctrines spread to Latin America, where Creoles wanted to supplant Gachupines (Peninsular-born whites) in office.
Napoleon took Louisiana back from New Spain but sold it to the United States.
Napoleon deposed Spanish king and replaced him with his brother, Joseph, precipitating revolution and the Peninsular War and, ultimately, his own downfall.
Sep 16, 1810  
Father Manuel Hidalgo called for Mexican independence from Spain in "el gr╠to de Delores" and this became Mexico's Independence Day. However, the struggle denigrated into guerilla warfare as the masses -- Mestizos and Indians -- rose against whites -- Gachupines and Creoles.
Feb 24, 1821  
General August╠n de Iturbide signed the Plan of Iguala to establish the new nation: conservative rule to protect upper orders against the masses. In July, the last Viceroy, Juan O'DonojÖ, recognized Mexican independence in the Treaty of C█rdoba. Iturbide proclaimed himself Emperor Iturbide I. In the same year, Austins began American settlement of Texas.
General Santa Anna deposed Iturbide and declared a Republic. Bitter struggle began between centrists (conservatives) and federalists (liberals), continuing to 1860.
First federalist regime. Centrists allied with Scottish Rite Masons (Escoces) and federalists with York Rite Masons (Yorkinos).
Santa Anna turned his coat and led Centrists to power.
Mar 1, 1836  
Because of Santa Anna's centrization, Texas declared its independence and won it at the Battle of San Jacinto.
Dec 29, 1845  
The United States annexed the Republic of Texas. President James K. Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to settle differences but war party in Mexico under Paredes won out.
US-Mexican War. Four campaigns -- Taylor in Northern Mexico, Kearny in New Mexico, naval blockage of both coasts and Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City.
Oct 13, 1847  
Aztec Club of 1847 organized in Mexico City with General John A. Quitman, of Mississippi, as its first President.
Feb 2, 1848  
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the War. Terms of peace included payment by the United States of $15 million for Mexico Cession.
A new constitution and a liberal victory, but three years of civil war followed until Benito Juarez emerged as liberal leader and President.
European intervention during the American Civil War by Great Britain, Spain and France. First two withdrew shortly thereafter.
French army captured Mexico City and Archduke Maximilian of Austria-Hungary, a Hapsburg, proclaimed second Emperor of Mexico.
The Civil War ended, the United States sent troops to the border, the French withdrew and Maximilian is executed at Quer╚taro. Empress Carlotta went mad.
Juarez is again President of Mexico; died in office.
Porfirio Diaz dictator of Mexico for all but four years. Encouraged foreign exploitation of Mexico's natural wealth, but Mexico City becomes a metropolis.
Mexican Revolution -- Madero, Huerta, Carranza, Villa and Zapata.
United States seized Vera Cruz in dispute with conservative dictator Huerta.
Villa's raid on Columbus, NM was followed by Pershing's punitive expedition into Northern Mexico with 12,000 troops. The U. S. National Guard is sent to the Mexican border.
U. S. withdrew on eve of its entry into World War I. New Mexican constitution adopted.
Obreg█n overthrew and killed Carranza.
Revolutionary reorganization. Calles President in 1924, suppressed Roman Catholic Church and nationalized oil. Obreg█n, again elected President in 1928, was assassinated and Calles took over once more.
Lazaro Cardenas (father of Mexico City's new mayor, Cuahtem█c) elected President and revived social revolution, organized labor, instituted land reform and expropriated foreign-owned property.
World War II. After Pearl Harbor, Mexico, under President Avila Camacho, declared war on the Axis. U. S.-Mexican friendship cemented. Mexican Air Force Squadron 201, flying P-47s, fought Japanese in the Philippines, serving with the U. S. Far East Air Corps.
Miguel AlemĚn elected first civilian President since Madero in 1911.